Above LEFT Immature white blood cells resulting from congenital leukaemia. This is a cancer-like disease of these blood cells. Above RIGHT Cancer cells from human breast… Read more.

A man sprays the top of a bus with an anti-flu virus in London, in March 1920, during the epidemic that followed World War One. Public health measures such as this were… Read more.

Mosquito (Anopheles) feeding on human blood. Their mouthparts are adapted for piercing the skin of plants and animals. While both males and females typically feed on… Read more.

A smallpox vaccination kit from the nineteenth-century, containing small blades used to pierce the patient’s skin. Edward Jenner (1749–1823), a country doctor, developed… Read more.

The cinchona tree is the only known natural source of quinine. Its medicinal properties were discovered by the Quechua Indians of Peru and Bolivia, and later the Jesuits… Read more.

I have for the past decade described the chaos in the Middle East as being driven by the rapid population growth that created a regional civil war. This is essentially the process whereby through… Read more.

From the start of my career in finance as discretionary trader 35 years ago, I have believed that the price of a market at any one time contains all aspects of the information available. Why I… Read more.

The Age of Sail

In the ancient Mediterranean world, sea battles were decided by the size of the fleets, ramming, boarding and fire. Design innovations were incremental whilst tactical… Read more.

Many readers have asked me about how the US market can be making new highs when the Wuhan virus is raging through China and represents a clear an present danger, and yet the US stock… Read more.